Ancient Egypt developed over three and a half millennia. It began with the incipient unification of Nile Valley polities around 3150 BC, and is conventionally thought to have ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered and absorbed Ptolemaic Egypt as a state. The civilisation of ancient Egypt was based on balanced control of natural and human resources, characterised primarily by controlled irrigation of the fertile Nile Valley; the mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions; the early development of an independent writing system and literature; the organization of collective projects; trade with surrounding regions in east / central Africa and the eastern Mediterranean; and finally, military ventures that exhibited strong characteristics of imperial hegemony and territorial domination of neighbouring cultures at different periods. Motivating and organising these activities were a socio-political and economic elite that achieved social consensus by means of an elaborate system of religious belief under the figure of a semi-divine ruler from a succession of ruling dynasties.
Dr Ron Bonewitz is a well-known author writing about the ancient mysteries of the Maya, the Egyptians, and of Pyramids. Other books include teaching yourself hieroglyphics, crystal healing, and a major full-colour work on gems and minerals. These are available as printed and e-books on his website: www.ronbonewitz.com