Images and grading

Images
Our coins and antiquities are shown exactly as photographed, with most appearing better in the hand than online. However, depending on your monitor settings, some coins or antiquities may look slightly lighter or darker; or may appear slightly different in colour. All images are copyright © TimeLine Originals.
Grading
Coins and antiquities are described according to the following conservative British standards. For the benefit of the inexperienced we normally do not use abbreviations; but where used the following applies:
Grade
PP
Flan bruni
Med. præg
UNC
Uncirculated
Stempelglanz
F.D.C., 0
0
EF
Extremely fine
Vorzüglich
Superb
01
VF
Very fine
Sehr schön
Tres beau
1+
F
Fine
Schön
Beau
1
Fr
Fair
S.g.e
Tres bien cons
1- 1?
Med
Mediocre
Gut erhalten
Bien conservé
2
A = Almost; G = Good. GF = Good fine; thus AGF = almost good fine, i.e. better than fine, but not as good as GF. / is used to differentiate between obverse and reverse: VF/GF denotes that the obverse is VF whilst the reverse is GF. F-VF indicates that the grade of the coin varies between F and VF. If 'F or better' or some variant is stated we may have several examples and the minimum grade is fine. MM = mintmark. Ae = copper or bronze. Ag = silver. Au = gold. Fe = iron. Pb = lead. Zn = zinc. P = pewter.

Weights are given in grams. Sizes are given in millimetres (mm) diameter or maximum length.
Rarity
The rarity of coin types is based on many standard references, including RIC for Roman coins, The Celtic Coin Index for Iron Age Coins, The Early Medieval Corpus for Anglo-Saxon, Viking and Norman Coins, and JJ North for later English Hammered Coinage. The following estimates are used as an indication of rarity within our site: Excessively Rare 1-5 specimens known; Extremely Rare 6-15 specimens known; Very Rare 16-30 specimens known; Rare 31-50 specimens known; Scarce 51-100 specimens known, Unpublished - possibly unique/no other examples known. Many coin finds remain unrecorded so these figures are only a rough guide to rarity at the time the coin was researched.